Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens)

Prognostic markers for dogs with thyroid tumors are limited.

To identify clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical prognostic factors for dogs with thyroid tumors.

Seventy dogs with thyroid neoplasia.

Retrospective study. Dogs with thyroid neoplasia were included when follow-up information and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were available. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, Ki-67, and E-cadherin. Correlation of tumor variables (diameter, volume, localization, scintigraphic uptake, thyroid function, IHC) with local invasiveness and metastatic disease was performed on all tumor samples. Forty-four dogs treated by thyroidectomy were included in a survival analysis.
Fifty dogs (71%) had differentiated follicular cell thyroid carcinoma (dFTC) and 20 (29%) had medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). At diagnosis, tumor diameter (P = .007; P = .038), tumor volume (P = .020), tumor fixation (P = .002), ectopic location (P = .002), follicular cell origin (P = .044), and Ki-67 (P = .038) were positively associated with local invasiveness; tumor diameter (P = .002), tumor volume (P = .023), and bilateral location (P = .012) were positively associated with presence of distant metastases. Forty-four dogs (28 dFTC, 16 MTC; stage I-III) underwent thyroidectomy. Outcome was comparable between dogs with dFTC and MTC. Macroscopic (P = .007) and histologic (P = .046) vascular invasion were independent negative predictors for disease-free survival. Although time to presentation, histologic vascular invasion and Ki-67 were negatively associated with time to metastases, and time to presentation was negatively associated with time to recurrence, no independent predictors were found. E-cadherin expression was not associated with outcome.

Prognostic factors have been identified that provide relevant information for owners and clinicians.

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